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UZBEKISTAN

  Located at the very heart of Central Asia 20 centuries ago Uzbekistan was a key link on the Great Silk Road connecting China with Western Europe in ancient times. The legendary cities of Samarkand, Bukhara and Khiva were powerful states, important trade centres where architecture, arts and agriculture were highly developed. This oriental country associating with names of such a great scientists, philosorhers, potentates, writers like Ibn-Sina (Aviccena), Buruni, Alisher Navoi, Ulugbek, Bobur the Lion, Tamerlaine (Timur the Great).

  Uzbekistan's golden age was under Tamerlaine in the 14th century AD. Ruling an empire stretching from Turkey to China, he made Samarkand his capital and left a breathtaking architectural legacy including mosques, madrassahs and majestic Registan Square.

  Today, the old atmosphere of the Great Silk Road still survives in the oriental bazaars and tea houses where the many nationalities of Central Asia gather together wearing their traditional and colourful clothes.

  Supporting a population of 25 million people, Uzbekistan borders Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Afghanistan. Main religion is Islam; Official language is Uzbek yet Russian forms a common language of all groups. Uzbekistan is a country with well developed industry, produces the airplanes, cars, buses, textile and cottons machines, refrigerators. Flora and Fauna also is very rich: 3700 species of plants, 97 species of mammalian, 379 species of birds and 69 species of fish.

Government
  
Under the 1992 constitution, the supreme legislative body is the 250-seat - Oly Majlis. Executive power rests with the elected president. The day-to-day running of the country is carried out by the Cabinet of Ministers, which answers to the president, who is also Head of State.

Climate
  The climate in Uzbekistan is continental like all over the Central Asia, with cold winters (-2-3 C) and very hot summers (up to +49 C). The best time to visit are April, May and early June and again September and October. The hottest days are between about 15th July to 20th August and during this time temperatures can reach 38 degrees centigrade, but the evenings cool down considerably.

State flag
1. The blue color of the flag symbolises blue, peaceful sky and water as the main life source. Generally blue color means kindness, chasity, honesty, glory and faithfulness.
2. The white color of the flag is the traditional symbol of peace. It is the harmony with daylight and heavenly bodies. This color symbolizes purity of high morals and deeds.
3. Green is a color of Islam and the revival of nature, also symbolises youth and hope.
4. 2 red lines on the flag symbolise life.
5. Half moon is one of the simbols of Islam and also associates with historical traditions of Uzbekistan.
6. There are 12 stars on the state flag, symbolising 12 Uzbekistan regions.
Adopted on 18th of November, 1991.

National emblem
  Expresses the sun rising over the flourishing valley surrounded by wreath of wheatears on the right and twigs of cotton plants with opened cotton balls on the left. There is eight-pointed star above all, which symbolises the consolidation and unity of Uzbekistan. The Half Moon and a star situated inside are Islam's sacred symbols. The legendary "Humo bird" (which means Bird of happiness) whith extended wings in the center of the emblem is the symbol of national rebirth.
Adopted on 2nd July, 1992.

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