25 Oct 1864 - 17 Feb 1933
Toktogul Satylganov was a talented poet, singer-improviser
and virtuous komuz player of Kyrgyzstan. He was born in poor family living
in Suusamyr district in our days known as Toktogul district of Djalal-Abad
region and never learned to read and write. When he was 12 his parents had
to send Toktogul to serve local bai (feudalist) as a junior hersman, which
was almost slavery. Close relations with other destitute people played a decisive
role in forming his character.
His early poetic talent was discovered with a
help of his parents. His father Satylgan was known as ingenious poet in his
community. Mother of Toktogul was a witty woman and knew many tales, legends
and traditions. When Toktogul turned 13 years old he started to compose songs
and play komuz himself. In his first songs like "Because of the poverty"
young poet sings about cruelty and inhumanity of his muster Kazanbai and rightless
In 1882 Toktogul faced a famous king's singer
Arzymat on a poetry competition and scores a victory. On this contest Toktogul
showed himself to be not only outstanding singer but also a fearless exposer
of evil and a poor peasants rights defender. His glory traveled all over Kyrgyzstan.
He authored many lyrical, satirical, and philosophical
song and poems that became classics of Kyrgyz literature. Toktogul's freedom
praising songs initiated furious anger of feudalists, manaps, mullahs and
tsarist officials. In 1988 during Andijan rebellion tsarists made up a fake
denunciation of Toktogul's participation in revolt and arrested the poet in
July. In August the court's declared a death sentence but later with a help
of "Tsars mercy" capital punishment was replaced by penal servitude
in Siberia for 7 years.
Being in Siberia Toktogul follows the way of
thousands of revolutionists from all over Russia and living with Russian socialistic
idealists extends his political outlook and understanding of equal will of
international labor to obtain freedom from feudal rules. Here he composed
a number of songs describing convicts' life and made komuz of Siberian pine
with an axe.
In 1902 with a help of his Russian friends Toktogul
got over many difficulties and succeeded to escape and in 1903 came back to
his motherland. Upon return poet composed a number of songs describing happiness
of a man who received his motherland back: "Meeting the native land",
"Greeting desirable nation", "Mama, dear, living? Healthy?".
In many of his songs of that period Toktogul predicts the end of tsarism and
tells about the people who fight for happiness of labor and calls Kyrgyz people
for friendship with "elder brothers" - Russian working masses. Enraged
tsarist regional rulers locked the poet in Namangan prison but mass disturbances
rased to protect him made officials change their mind and release disobedient
Toktogul was the first akyn (poet) who welcomed
the Great October Socialistic Revolution and became not only a herald of new
era but an active participant of revolution. During this period he wrote his
outstanding poem "What woman gave a birth to such a person like Lenin?",
which was a start of Kyrgyz soviet literature. During years of soviet power
he wrote a number of songs about communistic party and soviets, kolkhoz idea
development. His works were translated into all soviet republics' languages
and published abroad.
Many of the streets, parks, schools and libraries
were named after Toktogul Satylganov. Also a district, town, Bishkek concert
hall and the biggest reservoir in the country wear name of the great Kyrgyz
akyn-democrat of the XIX-XX centuries.
Aliases: Tokhtogul, Satilganov, Satylghanov, Satylganof.