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HISTORY OF KAZAKHSTAN

  More or less discribed histrory of Kazakhstan goes back to 500 BC when it was inhabited by ancient nomads Sakas (Sythians). The greatest Kazakhstans treasure called "Golden man", a marvellous worriors costume fully made of gold belongs Sakas period. It was found in a tomb near Almaty and now is a greatest counties archeological treasure.

  Hsiung-Nu, a big nomadic union from the area of Northern China controled the eastern Kazakhstan in about 200 BC. They were probably ancestors of the Hunns who conqered some parts of Persia, India and Europe some time later.

  Later Hunns were yielded the territory to Turks (Turkics). From about 550 to 750 AD Southern portion of Kazakhstan was considered western part of Kok (blue) Turkic Empire. Samanid dynasty with their capital in Bukhara was inhabiting the very south of Kazakhstan in 9th century AD and developed here famous cities of Otyrar And Yassy (Turkistan) which became an important trade centers on the Great Silk Road. Other kind of Turks were Qarakhanids (Karahanids) who replaced Samanids but kept their settled lifestyle as well as religion Islam. Era of Qarahanids was a time of new technologies and sciences. For istance they succeeded in architecture and city-planning which is proved by sill existing monuments in the area of Taraz.

  In about 1130 Qarakhanids were displaced by Karakitais, a buddists moving from Mongolia and Northern China.

  In 1218 Jenghis Khan threw his army of 150 000 against the Karakitay and Khoresmshakh Empires and in 1219 they took over their main cities, such as Bukhara, Samarkand and Otyrar. After Jhengis's death his empire was divided between his sons.

  Kazakhs appeared as a distinkt nation in about 14th century when Timur the Lame (aka Tamerlaine) was ruling the region. They are an offspring of Turkic and Mongol origins.

  During the period between 1680 to 1770 there was a number of big battles between Kazakhs and Oyart, a union of for nomadic clans from West Mongolia from which Dzhungars appeared to be more agressive and successful in setting their control over the eastern part of Kazakhstan and part of Xinjiang (China).

  Russian "colonisation" started in 19th century as first russian settlers started to move in after Kazakhs made an agreement with Russia to obtain some protection from various khanates trying to enlarge their properties.

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